VINCENT FERRER POLYPTYCH

GIOVANNI BELLINI: 

 

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Information

In 1518 the Pesaro family bought this altar, they were one of the leading Venetian families. In 1519, Jacopo Pesaro commissioned Titian for a painting to commemorate his victory of the Battle of St Maura in the 2nd Ottoman-Venetian war of 1499-1503. The wars were fought over a number of islands in the Adriatic and Aegean seas. First, Benedetto Pesaro (Jacopo's older relative and commander of the Venetian Navy also a donor and buried in the church) and a Spanish fleet claimed victory over one of the islands. Benedetto then continued alone, met up with Jacopo (who was commander of the papal fleet) and overtook the island of St Maura from the Ottomans. These were 2 of the rare Venetian victories. The Venetians suffered many losses and were forced to sign a peace treaty with the Ottomans in 1503. One of the outcomes of the treaty was that St Maura was given back to the Ottomans.

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JACOPO PESARO

Jacopo Pesaro is the patron of the painting. He was the Bishop of Paphos, Cyprus (a Greek Island now, but in the 1500's a Venetian Territory) and had been named Commander of the Papal fleet by Pope Alexander VI.

He won a battle against the Turks and commissioned 2 paintings to commemorate the victory.

The first one (image above) was commissioned in 1506 also by Titian, and now hangs in Antwerp. It shows Jacopo being presented to St Peter by the Pope. This painting was thought to have originally hung in the Pesaro's home.

He commissioned this painting 13 years later. Titian paints Jacopo being presented to the VM by Saint Peter.

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ST PETER THE APOSTLE

Typical Symbols & Attributes:

KEY: YES, tied to his foot
BLUE AND GOLD ROBES: YES
TO THE LEFT OF JESUS OR THE VM: YES

-The key refers to the Bible verse: (Jesus' statement to Peter in Matthew 16:19) "I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven."

Here he is presenting The Patron (Jacopo) to The VM

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THE VM

-It has been said that Titian's wife, Cecilia, posed for this Madonna, could not find anything to prove this..

-In 1525, Titian married Cecilia, to legitimize his son Pomponio, whom they had had some time before. After marriage, they had two more children, Orazio and Lavinia. Some sources say there may have been another daughter Emilia. Cecilia died giving birth to Lavinia. Orazio eventually became assistants to Titian, Pomponio a priest, and his daughter was married off when she came of age. Unfortunately, she died also during childbirth like her mother.

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ST FRANCIS OF ASSISI

Typical Symbols & Attributes:
Brown robe with rope belt 3 knots: YES
Stigmata: YES on hands
Tonsure haircut: ?? can't tell

-This Church is a Franciscan order and St Francis (Founder of the Franciscan Order) is the patron Saint.
-He is standing in a honoured position next to the VM.

-He is presenting Jacopo Pesaro's relatives to The VM.

-Besides being Patron Saint of the Church, Titian may have chosen St Francis because Jacopo Pesaro had a brother named Francesco (named after the saint and #7 in red robe)
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JACOPO'S BROTHER- FRANCESCO

Francesco wears crimson silk a preferred fabric among the Venetian elite when it came to clothing.

He kneels in the bottom right corner in a luxurious alto e basso, and is further deemed as high society given its monochrome crimson coloring and large, “ducal,” sleeves.

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ST ANTHONY OF PADUA

Typical Symbols & Attributes
Brown robe with ties: YES
NO stigmata: can't tell
Can be holding a lily or book: looks like it

-St Anthony is a Franciscan Monk, probably chosen because he was from the same order as the church. He is from Padua, a city near Venice.

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3 OF JACOPO'S BROTHERS IN A LINE

Antonio, Giovanni and Fantino.

Antonio is the father of the boy who is looking directly at us.

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JACOPO'S NEPHEW-LEONARDO

-He was in charge of administering the trust fund for continued prayers for his dead uncle.
-His father is the man on the left of the group of three.

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COLUMNS

-Titian used large classical architecture as the background, which was just starting to be the style, like Raphael's school of Athens (1509).
There is some controversy over the columns. X-rays reveal that Titian painted several other architectural elements in their place before settling on the columns. Some critics have speculated that Titian did not paint the columns.
OR
The outdoors setting suggests that the activity is taking place in a portico, so by making the columns so grand it belittles the human beings, leaving the viewer almost in awe of the greater implied force.

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PAPAL CREST

Each Pope had their own crest, although it usually looked about the same with minor changes. The Pope at this time was Alexander VI.

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PESARO FAMILY CREST

This crest is above Doge Giovanni Pesaro tomb in this church.

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LAUREL BRANCH

Symbolized victory along with the white turban on the prisoner.

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KNIGHT HOLDING A PRISONER CAPTIVE

The Turk is being held captive by the knight or standard bearer in reference to Pesaro's defeat of the Ottomons's in the battle of St Maura.

The identify of the Knight and prisoner are unknown.

1. Signature                   6. St Mark
2. Detail                        7. St Benedictine
3. Detail                        8. Detail
4. St Nicholas                9. Detail
5. St Peter

Tell me about the artist

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, was born in the little village Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno. He was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. Titian died in a plague epidemic in Venice in August 1576. 

Titian and his brother Francesco were sent to an uncle in Venice to find apprenticeships with a painter. The boys entered the studio of the elderly Gentile Bellini (1429–1507). They later transferred to the studio of his brother Giovanni Bellini (1430–1516). In 1508, Titian worked on commissions together with his friend Giorgione (c 1477–1510).

The large painting The Assumption of the Virgin, also in this church, was the first significant commission for Titian during his career in Venice. Titian broke with the traditions of Venetian painting. 

Titian was soon perceived as the most prominent of all the Renaissance painters in Venice. He became the painter of fashion among the wealthy people.

In 1533, Titian was commissioned to paint a portrait of Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). He was Emperor in Germany and also King of the United Spanish kingdoms. The Emperor was very pleased with the painting and he made Titian a Count Palatine and knight of the Golden Spur. His children were also made nobles of the Empire. For a painter this was an exceptional honour.Titian came to know Charles V personally, and had painted other portraits of him by this time. A highly intelligent man, Titian was quick witted, humorous and easy company. He had developed such a strong friendship with Charles by the time of this portrait that the emperor’s courtiers were uneasy at the extent that a lowly painter was allowed into his confidence.[6] While in Augsburg, Titian was given an apartment close to Charles’ own, and allowed easy access and frequent meetings with the emperor.

In 1543, Titian was commissioned to paint a portrait of Pope Paul III (1468–1549). During the 1550s, Titian also made a portrait of King Philip II of Spain (1527–1598), a son of Karl V.

Titian was a versatile painter. He made landscape backgrounds, mythologi- cal subjects, portraits, and religious subjects. Titian’s artistic manner changed drastically during the course of his long life.

Who Commisioned it?

Commissioned by Jacopo Pesaro family to hang in their family chapel they purchased inside the church.

He is buried on the wall to the left of the painting.

His cousin is buried at the entrance to the sacristy.

His aunt and uncle are buried inside the sacristy where Bellini painting hangs.

One of his nephews  (???? check relationship) was the Doge Giovanni Pesaro Doge: 1589-1658. He has a huge monument to the left of this painting.

Interesting Facts

can see paintings where they hung in their original locations where artist painted them for

Famous people associated with church

WHEN

Timeline

 

THE STORY

What is this About?

 

In 1518 the Pesaro family bought this chapel in the church. Pesaro family was one of the leading Venetian families.

Jacopo was Bishop of Paphos, in Cyprus, and had been named commander of the papal fleet by the Borgia pope, Alexander VI. 

Titian was commissioned in 1519 by Jacopo.

The painting commemorates Jacopo Pesaro’s win of Battle of St Maura in Ottoman-Venetian wars of 1499-1503. The wars were fought to gain control over a number of islands in the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean seas. With the Venetians suffering many losses in 1500 Doge Agostino Barbarigo asked the Pope and the Catholic Monarchs for help. On 24 December a Spanish–Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Cephalonia (one of the Ionian islands). Benedetto Pesaro (Older relative-maybe uncle of Jacopo) was commander in chief of the Venetian navy sent to help the Spanish. After the vicotory, Cordoba went to Sicily and Benedetto continued on without him.  He later met up with his nephew Jacopo who was commander of the papal fleet and overtook the island of St Maura from the Ottomans in 1502. These were 2 of the rare Venetian victories. The Venetians suffered many losses and were forced to sign a peace treaty in 1503.

Although Pesaro won St Maura int he battle, in 1503 control was given control to the Ottomans.

 

WHO PAINTED IT

The Artist

 

The Bellini family of painters was one of the most influential names in the Italian Renaissance. Jacopo Bellini (1396 – 1470), Giovanni’s father, was a leading painter at the start of the Renaissance. Jacopo’s two sons, Giovanni and Gentile (1429 – 1507), carried on this immense influence, with Giovanni carrying great importance in the Venetian style of painting. Jacopo Bellini was also the teacher of another highly influential Renaissance artist, Andrea Mantegna, (1431 – 1506), who was married into the Bellini family as a brother-in-law of Giovanni.

Where his father solidified the style seen in the Early Renaissance, Giovanni evolved it in his use of atmospheric colors, which came to define the Venetian School. This was an important influence on two of his pupils, the masters, Giorgione (1477 – 1510) and Titian (1485 – 1576)

As Mantegna studied in Jacopo Bellini’s studio, Giovanni absorbed some of his unique style. One of his most cherished works under the influence of Mantegna was the Agony in the Garden, from 1459.

Giovanni Bellini first began painting in Oil when the Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina (1430 – 1479), came to see the work of Bellini. It is said that Messina had a crucial role in introducing Oil painting to the Venetians. With this Bellini’s religious works took on a new life, closer to the vivid, but flowing, colors that became so distinct of the Venetians. Often collaborating with his brother Gentile, Giovanni executed some of his best work in place of Gentile for a commission at the Palazzo Ducale di Venezia, or Doge’s Palace in Venice. Sadly, a great deal of work here was lost to fire in 1577.